In recent years there has been a growing trend to use disposable party plates for special occasions. While some people see this as a waste, others find the convenience and ease of cleaning worth it. You don't have to spend money on expensive plates when you can use disposable plates! Disposable plates are a great choice for homeowners and interior designers looking to save money and reduce waste. Also, they are very easy to use and clean. Whether you're hosting a small party or just want to clean up after dinner, disposable plates are a must. But with so many options on the market, it can be difficult to know which are the best. That's why we've compiled a list of the 11 best disposable plates. From elegant designs that will wow your guests to sturdy plates that can withstand even the messiest of meals, we've got you covered. So read our picks and start planning your next party!
1. Encore Ultra Dessertteller aus Paper
Introducing the newest addition to the Encore line of disposable plates: the Ultra Paper dessert plate! This extra strong and stylish sign is perfect for all your party needs. Whether you're serving a sweet dessert or a delicious snack, these dishes will make your food look and taste great. They're also microwave safe, soak proof and cut proof, making them perfect for any occasion. Plus, they're sourced from sustainably managed forests and proudly made in the USA. Make your next party one to remember with Encore Ultra Paper Dessert Plates! Serve your treats on the Encore Ultra Paper Dessert Plates! These sturdy plates are perfect for any party, celebration or everyday meal. Different colors add a touch of fun, and the plates are microwavable and cut-resistant. Plus, they're made from sustainable materials and proudly made in the USA.
2. Compostable tableware for convenient packaging
These signs are perfect for your next party or event. They are made from 100% sugar cane fiber and are fully compostable and biodegradable so you will feel comfortable using them. The sturdy design means they can withstand even the heaviest of meals, and the cut and leak resistant construction means your guests won't go home hungry. With Comfy Package Compostable Dishes, you don't have to worry about spills and messes. The wide, high rim is perfect for serving spicy food without making a mess. The classic white color adds sparkle and richness to any event, while the clean shape is perfect for any type of meal.
3. Biodegradable NexHex panels
Introducing the biodegradable NexHex plates - the easy and sustainable way to enjoy your food! Made entirely from sugarcane fiber, these boards are 100% renewable and biodegradable, meaning they're good for you and the environment. Durable and practical, NexHex plates are perfect for everything from family meals to take-out orders. So ditch the useless throwaway products and switch to NexHex. Your taste buds (and the planet) will thank you! NexHex biodegradable signs are perfect for any event! Not only are they compostable, but they are also oil and water resistant. The clear, natural brown color makes them stand out and adds a touch of elegance to any occasion. NexHex biodegradable signs are the perfect way to celebrate Christmas or Thanksgiving. Made from bagasse, a sustainable material, these plates are eco-friendly and disposable. They're brown too, so they'll complement your Christmas decorations perfectly.
Introducing Dixie Paper Plates - now even better than before! Our plates are 2X stronger than paper plates from comparable leading brands and feature a microwave-safe, cut-resistant and soak-proof shield that can handle everything from salad dressings to hamburger grease. Whether you're looking for an everyday plate or something special for your next party or picnic, Dixie's has you covered! Who said being stylish has to be difficult? Not with Dixie paper plates lying around! These boards may have a simple design, but that's what makes them so versatile. They're perfect for any casual occasion, from a backyard BBQ to a kid's birthday party. And with 44 pieces (pack of 5) there is something for everyone. So join us!
5. Prestee Gold Plastic Plates
Enhance your next meeting with these beautiful plastic signs from Prestee Gold. These heavy plates feature a set of crisp white plates with a luxurious gold finish. They're perfect for everything from formal dinners to informal gatherings, and they're disposable for easy cleaning. Plus, they're made from food-grade, non-toxic, BPA-free plastic. Host the event of the year with Prestee's Gold Plastic Signs! This package has everything you need for 25 guests including 2 matching 10" and 7" plates for starters and mains. Make your celebration extra special with these elegant gold plaques. Prestee Gold Plastic Plates are perfect for all your hospitality needs! Whether you're serving a hot meal or need a few plates for a party, these disposable beauties will get the job done. Plus, they come in an elegant gold color that adds a touch of sophistication to any gathering.
6. Disposable party tableware
Looking for quality disposable party tableware? Look no further than AIR! Our plates are available in paper and in white and rose gold, perfect for any occasion. Tired of doing the dishes after every party? Tired of using the same boring cutlery? Then this AIRE disposable cutlery is just right for you! Made entirely of paper and plastic, it's lightweight, easy to clean and store, and most importantly, disposable! Whether you're hosting a small gathering or a big adventure, this set has you covered. Aire disposable cutlery is perfect for any celebration! The beautiful white and rose gold design adds a touch of elegance to any event. The plates, knives, forks and spoons are made of durable plastic and will not bend or break. In addition, our customer service is exceptional: we answer your questions within 24 hours! So don't wait, click "Buy Now" to start your perfect party!
7. Joes Original-Pappteller
Let Joe be your throwaway party hero with these durable, waterproof plates. Made from multicolored paper, these plates can handle everything from dense foods to juicy burgers without bending or spilling. With 125 plates per pack, there is enough for all your guests, big and small. Plus, cleaning up is a breeze thanks to their disposable design - just throw them away when you're done! Whether you're hosting a birthday party or a company picnic, make sure Joe has his plate set. These biodegradable disposable plates are the perfect alternative to traditional plastic or styrofoam plates. They are made of eco-friendly disposable materials and are suitable for both hot and cold dishes. Plus, they're eco-friendly and disposable, making them the perfect choice for any gathering or special event. Disposable paper plates are a great eco-friendly alternative to traditional plastic or metal plates. They are made of biodegradable material and are perfect for serving hot dishes.
8. Stack Man Ecological Disposables
Looking for a sustainable option for your next party or gathering? Check out our eco-friendly disposable plates! Made from 100% sugar cane fiber, these plates are biodegradable and compostable, perfect for hot, steaming meals. They are also a great alternative to traditional paper or plastic plates. So why not go green with Stack Man Eco disposable plates? Introducing the Stack Man Eco Disposable Plate! Made entirely from sugar cane fiber, it's eco-friendly and compostable! Plus, it offers a single-use design that degrades quickly, meaning convenient cleanup for you, your customers, and the planet. This product meets ASTM D6400 or D6868 standards and is intended for composting in a municipal or commercial facility that operates in accordance with best composting practices. It can be used for hot or cold dishes and is microwave safe. These boards can be composted in a commercial setting with no negative impact on the environment. Plus, they're sturdy enough to handle both hot and cold foods, making them perfect for any occasion.
9. Dixie Ultra Pappteller
Introducing Dixie Ultra Paper Plates! These sturdy plates are built to handle the heaviest of meals. With Flex-Proof technology, they can handle anything you throw at them, from weeknight dinners to parties and picnics. Plus, they come in a fresh design that you're sure to like. So stop washing up and switch to Dixie Ultra paper plates! Dixie Ultra paper plates are the perfect plates for your next picnic or party. These plates are three times stronger than paper plates from comparable leading brands and can hold up to 2 pounds of food. Microwavable, cut-resistant and soak-proof shield keeps your food safe and secure. Eco disposable tableware is made from 100% natural, unbleached plant fibers. They're perfect for any food service occasion, hot or cold, and food truck safe! Plus, when you're done with them, they compost easily.
10. Disposable plates for delicious dinners
Are you looking for an elegant and economical way to serve your guests? Blissful Dining disposable plates are perfect for any event! Made of non-toxic, food-grade plastic, these plates are durable enough to hold any type of food or drink. Plus, they're easy to clean - just throw them in the trash when you're done! These disposable plates are perfect for any fancy occasion! The classic ivory design will leave a lasting impression on your guests, and the plates are durable enough to hold everything from dinner to dessert. Plus, the included cutlery/utensils (spoons, forks, knives) make cleaning a breeze. These compostable plates are the perfect way to show your guests that you care about the environment! Made from sturdy plastic, they are perfect for any occasion.
11. Healthy Compostable Paper Plate Set
These disposable dinnerware sets are made from 100% sugarcane fiber, making them eco-friendly and biodegradable. Cutlery can be dissolved by the environment, so you don't have to worry about damaging the earth with your waste. Perfect for a family dinner or entertaining! Gezond's compostable paper plate set is the perfect way to enjoy your next meal without worrying about cleaning up. These plates are made from durable paper that can withstand up to 248°F without warping and are also oil and leak resistant. They are also BPA-free and safe for contact with food. Whether you're throwing a party or having an outdoor picnic, these dishes are sure to make dinner that much more enjoyable.
Here are 6 tips for buying disposable plates.
When choosing the right disposable plates for your next party or event, consider the type of event, the number of guests, and your budget. Disposable plastic plates are usually the cheapest option, while compostable disposable plates are the most expensive but also the most environmentally friendly option. Have you ever thrown a party where you realized you were out of plates? Or maybe you're tired of using the same old dishes day after day and are looking for something new. Whatever your reasons for needing new plates, there is now a solution: Einwegteller.net offers a wide range of disposable plates to suit every need. Whether you're looking for something elegant for a special occasion or something more casual for everyday wear, we've got you covered. Thanks to convenient online ordering, delivery is quick and easy. If you're looking for the best disposable plates for your next party or event, look no further! Here are 5 tips to help you buy the perfect plates. From finding the right size and shape to choosing the right material and design, these tips will ensure you have everything you need for a great event. So let's start! So why not try something new today? You will not be disappointed!
1. Types of disposable plates
There are many types of disposable plates that you can buy for your next party or event. Depending on your needs and preferences, you can choose between plastic, paper and compostable dishes. Disposable plates come in a variety of shapes and sizes, making them perfect for all types of occasions. Whether you're throwing a big party or just want a quick and easy clean up after dinner, disposable plates are a great solution. There are many different types of disposable plates to choose from, so it's important to know what each is best for. Whether you're hosting a small gathering or a large party, using disposable plates can be a great way to reduce cleaning time. But with so many different types of disposable plates on the market, it can be difficult to choose just one. Here is a quick guide to help you choose the right type of disposable plate for your next event.
2. The advantages of disposable plates
Disposable plates have many advantages over the traditional plates you would use for a party or event. They are easy to clean, take up no storage space and come in a variety of colors and patterns. Have you ever wondered whether to use disposable plates or not? If yes, you are not alone. Many homeowners and interior designers face this dilemma. The good news is that there are pros and cons to using disposable plates. In this blog post, we take a closer look at the benefits of using disposable plates. In the end, you should have a better idea of whether or not they're right for you. There are some downsides to using disposable plates at your next party or event. They can be more expensive than traditional boards, they may not be as strong as traditional boards and in most cases they cannot be recycled.
3. Choose a color or design that matches the theme of the event
When it comes to entertainment, whether it's a small meeting or a large event, you want to make sure everything is perfect. This includes food and drinks, but also the crockery and cutlery to be used. If you're looking for an eco-friendly option, disposable bamboo plates are a great option. They come in a variety of colors and designs so you can choose one that fits the theme of your event. Plus, they're biodegradable, so you can rest assured that they won't harm the environment. So if you're looking for a stylish solution for your next event, disposable bamboo plates are definitely worth considering.
4. Choose a sturdy plate that can hold the food without breaking.
When it comes to choosing a disposable plate for your home, you want one that is sturdy and can hold food without breaking. With so many options on the market, it can be difficult to know which one is right for you. Are you looking for an eco-friendly way to serve your food? Consider using natural boards with a plastic or wax coating. These boards are made from earthy materials like bamboo, fibers and cornstarch and can be composted after use. Plus, they're durable and stylish, so you can use Earth's natural alternative dishes for any occasion. There are many factors to consider when choosing tableware for your home. You want something that looks good, but you also need something that's functional and easy to clean. If you're looking for an eco-friendly option, consider baseplates. Made from natural materials such as bamboo or sugar cane bagasse, the clay plates are biodegradable and compostable. Plus, they come in a variety of fun colors and patterns. So why not go green with your cutlery?
5. Choose eco-friendly disposable plates
Are you looking for a way to go green? In that case, consider using eco-friendly paper plates. A variety of options are available so you can find the perfect cymbal set for your needs. Plus, using eco-friendly paper plates is a great way to reduce your environmental impact. Read on to learn more about eco-friendly paper plates and why they're a great choice for your home. Are you looking for a way to bring a little bit of nature into your home without making too many compromises? Then natural earth plates could be the perfect solution for you! These unique plates are made from all-natural materials, making them the perfect way to add a touch of organic flair to your table. They're also easy to care for - just wash them in warm, soapy water. Try natural clay tiles today and see how they can transform your home!
6. Determine how many dishes you need and order them in advance
If you are organizing a dinner, you must order enough crockery in advance. This may seem like a simple task, but there are actually several factors to consider in order to get the right number of boards. Read on for a step-by-step guide to ordering organic food for your next dinner party. Planning a dinner party or large gathering and wondering how many plates you need?
What are best disposable plates? ›
- Palm Leaf Plates. We believe that the best disposable plates are made of palm leaves. ...
- Compostable Wheat Plates. ...
- Disposable Bamboo Plates. ...
- Compostable Paper Plates. ...
- Recycled Sugarcane Plates.
After trying numerous brands, I have found that Dixie Ultra Heavy Duty Paper Plates offer the best performance at a picnic for the best price. The plates are just a touch over 10-inches in diameter and will support up to two pounds of food when held with just one hand.What are the safest paper plates? ›
Palm Leaf Products: Safest but expensive. Bamboo Products: Safest but expensive.What color plates are best? ›
In general, round, white plates tend to enhance sweet flavors in food, whereas black, angular plates tend to bring out more savory flavors, Spence says. And serving food on a red plate tends to reduce the amount diners eat.What color plate is best for eating less? ›
New research shows that people eat less if there is a higher contrast in colors between the plate and the food. For example, if you eat a light-colored food like pasta off of a dark blue plate, you will probably eat less than if you eat the pasta off of a white plate.What is the most durable dinner plate? ›
While you might not expect it, bone china is the most durable dinnerware. Its high-heat firing makes bone china resistant to chipping, as well as microwave, dishwasher, and oven safe.Is it cheaper to buy paper plates or wash dishes? ›
I'm so glad you asked. My bills are significantly lower when I use paper plates or plastic cups. Paper plates come in stacks and they are cheap. The dishwasher uses hot water and our hot water heater is a significant percent behind electric bills.What are the most durable plates? ›
Bone china, a mix of Chinese clay, bone ash, and Chinese stone, is considered the most durable ceramic dinnerware since it is lightweight, but many sets are not dishwasher or microwave safe.What are the disadvantages of paper plates? ›
They take up space in landfills, and because of stains, we can't reuse or recycle them. So, unless you decide to compost the waste, paper plates are left to sit in landfills. In addition to these, manufacturing paper plates requires the addition of chemicals and bleaches to wood pulps.Are bamboo plates better than paper plates? ›
Both bamboo and palm leaf are natural, renewable materials. Unlike paper or plastic plates, they are biodegradable and compostable (in most cases).
What type of plate does not scratch? ›
Porcelain or China
This makes the resulting dinnerware extremely durable and nonporous.
Plain paper plates can be microwaved, but some disposable tableware are coated in a thin layer of plastic. Before you microwave a paper plate or bowl, be sure that it's clearly marked as microwave-safe.What color plates make you hungry? ›
If you want your guests to clear their plates (and then some), think about temperatures. "Research indicates that warm colors makes us feel hungry," says Augustin. This includes yellow, which designer Ann Pyne used in this Southampton dining room. According to Augustin, oranges also rev up appetites.What color is the most appetizing? ›
Red – Appetizing: Research shows that red is eye-catching and triggers appetite. It's particularly useful in packaging design, probably because the color indicates ripeness or sweetness in natural foods like berries.Are round or square plates better? ›
Square plates are not only aesthetically pleasing, but they also give you a bit more space to serve food on and the edges make them relatively easier to handle.What colors make you not hungry? ›
The color blue in kitchens has been noted to act as an appetite suppressant—perhaps the color's calming effect is thanks to its association with the natural elements of the sky or ocean. In fact, some nutritionists suggest using a blue light bulb inside your fridge to discourage mindless snacking.What is the healthiest plate of food? ›
Choose fish, poultry, beans, and nuts; limit red meat and cheese; avoid bacon, cold cuts, and other processed meats. Eat a variety of whole grains (like whole-wheat bread, whole-grain pasta, and brown rice). Limit refined grains (like white rice and white bread).What size plate to use for weight loss? ›
In one experiment, conducted by Brian Wansink from Cornell University and Koert van Ittersum from the Georgia Institute of Technology, it was discovered that a shift from 12–inch plates to 10–inch plates resulted in a 22% decrease in calories.What dinnerware doesn't break? ›
Melamine dinnerware is the ideal solution. These dishes look and feel almost identical to traditional dishware, but are light, shatter-resistant, and usually dishwasher-safe.What is the best break resistant dinnerware? ›
- Marrakesh Melamine 12-Piece Dinnerware Set.
- Pottery Barn Bamboo Dinnerware Collection.
- Homemade Navy Gingham Melamine Dinner Plate Set.
- Puebla Melamine 12-Piece Dinnerware Set.
- Pepper and Vetiver Handmade Acacia Wood Plates.
- Sur La Table Outdoor Melamine Set.
Which is better bone china or porcelain? ›
Compared to bone china, porcelain tends to be significantly heavier and more brittle, which can lead to chipping. What is Bone China? Bone china, also composed of kaolin, feldspar and quartz, has the greatest strength and resilience of all ceramics with the addition of bone ash to its raw materials.Is porcelain or bone china better for everyday use? ›
Bone china is the strongest material of the porcelain and china ceramics, meaning that it is likely to last through everyday use and the usual accidental slips of the hand or knocks off the table.Is it cheaper to wash dishes in sink or dishwasher? ›
A dishwasher is generally more energy-efficient than washing dishes by hand. However, it can be a grey area as it depends how you hand-wash your dishes. For example, some people use the tap to pre or post-rinse dishes. Some leave the tap running non-stop and others opt to fill the sink and leave the rinsing.Is it better to wash dishes by hand or machine? ›
Is it ever better to hand-wash dishes? A dishwasher is more water-efficient than washing by hand when you have a full load. If you've only got a few dirty plates or you're in a small household where it's not practical to wait until the dishwasher's full, you're probably better off washing in the sink.What is the most efficient way to wash dishes? ›
In general, dishes wash easily if you keep them under the water while scrubbing them; as you work, pull each dish out of the water to check for missed spots. End with cookware/pots and pans; if you soaked pans with baked-on foods, washing will be easier. Don't forget to wash the bottom of the pan.What size plates are best? ›
A larger plate, like 12 inches or even 13 inches, can lead to two things: larger portions than necessary or a plate that feels empty. When buying dinner plates, your best bet is to go for a 10-inch plate, as it is perfect for portion control and is large enough to fit all components of a traditional dinner.Is Corelle made of bone china? ›
Corelle dishes are made of Vitrelle, a glass laminate of three thermally-bonded glass layers.What is the best dinnerware material for microwave? ›
Nonmetallic materials such as glass and ceramic are the best for use in a microwave.What can I use instead of paper plates? ›
If you prefer paper plates when barbecuing or eating outside, consider investing in reusable metal, bamboo, or plastic plates that will not break if dropped. If you do need disposable plates for whatever reason, try to find biodegradable plates made from sustainably-harvested wood.Why should we not use disposable plates? ›
They are made up of non- biodegradable materials: Disposable plastic plates should not be used because they are made of non-biodegradable materials like plastics, etc. The non-biodegradable materials cannot be broken down into harmless substances in nature, so they are a major pollutant of the environment.
Are foam plates better than paper plates? ›
It takes 60% less material by weight to make a foam plate than it does to make a comparable paper plate. Making, using and disposing of foam plates, as opposed to comparable paper plates, generates 35% less greenhouse gas emissions.What are the best eco-friendly disposable plates? ›
- Bambu Veneerware Compostable 7" Plates.
- Bambu Veneerware Compostable 11" Plates.
- Bambu Small Condiment Cups.
- Grove Co. Compostable Cutlery.
- Bambu Veneerware Compostable 9" Plates.
- Bambu Large Condiment Cup.
Bamboo is susceptible to mould and attack by fungi because of its high content of starch and sugar.How long do bamboo plates last? ›
Bamboo dishes have a limited lifespan as they eventually get damaged by moisture. However, you can expect them to last up to 2 years. A bamboo plate will last you longer if you religiously hand-wash and dry it.What are the 4 types of plates? ›
There are seven major plates: African, Antarctic, Eurasian, Indo-Australian, North American, Pacific and South American.What color plate is best and safest when plating? ›
White is a top choice for many chefs for framing their culinary creations because almost every color of food looks good on white.What are the 3 types of plates? ›
There are three kinds of plate tectonic boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries. This image shows the three main types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform.Can you microwave an egg? ›
Yes, it is safe to cook eggs in the microwave, whether you wish to poach, scramble, or “fry” your eggs. Sometimes, microwaved eggs taste even better than stovetop eggs. For example, you can make perfectly poached eggs in the microwave without needing to form a whirlpool. More on that in a bit.Can you microwave food on a napkin? ›
Yes, you can microwave a napkin to stop splatters and direct heating of a meal. Put your meal in a microwavable bowl, place an open napkin over it, and microwave. I use both the disposable or cloth napkin depending on the one available.Is Corelle Ware toxic? ›
Corelle products purchased after 2005 are safe and comply with FDA regulations. Now, if you have any older dishes, that gets a little trickier. You'll want to avoid eating off of older Corelle dinnerware if it shows obvious signs of deterioration; if the glaze is worn, if the paint is melting or chipping, etc.
Do plates still contain lead? ›
Lead is rarely found in plain white dishes. Lead-containing glazes or decorations on the outside of dishes or non-food surfaces are generally not a problem.What kind of plates are the most durable? ›
Porcelain or China
Porcelain and China are both terms that refer to dinnerware made of a fine-particle clay—typically comprised of feldspar, kaolin, and quartz—that is fired at a higher temperature. This makes the resulting dinnerware extremely durable and nonporous.
Furthermore, silicone lasts longer, and stands up much better against heat (even in commercial dishwashers!) and cold than plastic alternatives. It's safer for your family, too, with no estrogen-mimicking toxins like BPA to worry about.What type of plate is the most durable? ›
These materials may include quartz and kaolin, and like stoneware and China, they are fired at high temperatures. This makes them extremely durable and non-porous, and the dishes are constructed with delicate fine details that add to the overall elegance.
While you might not expect it, bone china is the most durable dinnerware. Its high-heat firing makes bone china resistant to chipping, as well as microwave, dishwasher, and oven safe.What are the plates that don't break? ›
- The Overall Best Dinnerware Set: TP Melamine Dinnerware Set.
- The Best Microwave- and Oven-Safe Set: Corelle Vitrelle Glass Dinnerware Set.
- The Best Colorful Dinnerware Set: Certified International Talavera Melamine Dinnerware Set.
Corelle plates are popular for a reason. They're chip-resistant, sleek, and the frost white color is the perfect backdrop for any meal.What is the safest plate material? ›
- Stainless Steel Dinnerware.
- Vitrified Glass Dinnerware.
- Bamboo Dinnerware.
- Ceramic Dinnerware.
- Porcelain Dinnerware.
- Bone China Dinnerware.
- Melamine Dinnerware. Recent Melamine Poisoning Events.
- Wheat Straw Dinnerware.
Silicone doesn't manage extremely high temperatures well; this means that it can melt if exposed to a really high temperature for too long. Silicone bakeware cannot be near the flame. While silicone bakeware can last for a really long time, it may not last as long as some other materials.Is bamboo better than silicone? ›
If you're looking for an environment-friendly option, bamboo will emerge as the best option. It's 100% biodegradable and even compostable. As long as the utensil is produced without using harmful chemicals, those made of bamboo help in reducing plastic waste.
What can I use instead of a disposable plate? ›
If you prefer paper plates when barbecuing or eating outside, consider investing in reusable metal, bamboo, or plastic plates that will not break if dropped. If you do need disposable plates for whatever reason, try to find biodegradable plates made from sustainably-harvested wood.What is the alternative for disposable plates? ›
Bagasse Plates/ Sugarcane Plates:
These are one of the most sustainable, easily decomposable, biodegradable, and disposable plates. It is stronger than the paper plates but is not strong enough to carry a large amount of food which makes it a little less strong than palm leaf plates.
Dishwashers are better if you look at the carbon footprint. They take up less water, energy, and time. But if you are going for convenience and ease, go for the paper plates.What is the best number plate sticking? ›
By far the easiest way to fix a new number plate to your car is with VELCRO® Brand Heavy Duty Tape. It's quick and easy to apply, and is extremely strong and durable.What is the slowest moving plate? ›
The Arctic Ridge has the slowest rate (less than 2.5 cm/yr), and the East Pacific Rise near Easter Island, in the South Pacific about 3,400 km west of Chile, has the fastest rate (more than 15 cm/yr).